Ex: working-class majority-white suburbs, more rural majority-white areas or small towns with declining populations or few amenities

Exclusionary, low-opportunity communities were often exclusionary and high-opportunity at some point, but either a general decline in economic fortunes of the surrounding city or a flight of better-off households and jobs to a newer or more desirable neighborhood impacted residents’ ability to thrive. It would not be surprising if, despite having lower levels of opportunity than before, these communities remain a relative bastion of resources compared to others surrounding them. It would also not be surprising if the community was less rigidly segregated than exclusionary, high-opportunity neighborhoods, but remained segregated to some degree by race, class, or both. 


In exclusionary, low-opportunity communities, redress advocates should prioritize policies and programs that remove barriers to entry, stabilize families, regulate slumlords, and catalyze investments, such as: